London is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. With an estimated 8,308,369 residents in 2012, London is the most populous region, urban zone and metropolitan area in the United Kingdom. Standing on the River
Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its founding by the Romans, who named it Londinium. London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) mediaeval boundaries. With
its population of 7,375 in 2011, it is the smallest city in England. Since at least the 19th century, the term London has also referred to the metropolis developed around this core. The bulk of this conurbation forms the London region and the Greater London
administrative area, governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
London has a diverse range of peoples and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken within its boundaries. London had an official
population of 8,174,100, making it the most populous municipality in the European Union,and accounting for 12.5% of the UK population.